I had a similar experience. After trying absolutely everything including SFC, Bootrec, Startup Repair, System Restore I finally gave up and reinstalled Windows. Then I figured I would try to replicate the issue and was not successful.
I am having the same exact issue on multiple devices. On startup I see the logo, the loading circle is swirling and then stops before the computer restarts. Automatic repair kicks in and the circle swirls, it stops and the computer restarts and I’m back to logo then crash. It just does this over and over. It happens on my Surface Pro 4 and Surface Studio. No changes are made but on one unlucky restart it just happens forcing me to reinstall Windows since all startup repair and advanced troubleshooting won’t work. Before the Surface Studio crashed I created a recovery drive so I’m hoping I can recover with that instead of reinstalling everything.
sorry guys but you will have to do a reinstall as this problems is caused by the failure in boot alignment
when w10 1709 installs it has a new ID for the boot sector and if this for some reason doesn't install correctly you problem will happen this sector problem I have found before but every time I contact MS to do something about it I get a null report back from them I will see if I can do anything to see if I can build a solution
it can be caused by dodgy software sometimes or if your systems was infected