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That is not possible, I hope it will come in the future. You can vote for it here and please comment so it gets more attention. https://microsoftteams.uservoice.com/forums/555103-public/suggestions/37291222-split-screen-in-ms-te...
As a workaround you could join the meeting from both your Teams desktop client (with video and audio) and then join the same meeting to view shared content from Teams web application (without video and audio), https://teams.microsoft.com.