This machine previously had Windows 10 installed, and in Windows 10 I had disabled the "News and Interests" feature which placed a weather widget in the taskbar (not sure if that's relevant, but figured it might be worth mentioning). At the time I thought it took up too much real-estate and didn't really blend in with the rest of the UI very well. I've since upgraded this machine to Windows 11.
I recently purchased a new laptop that came with Windows 11 pre-installed. On the new device, I'm seeing the weather widget in the taskbar, docked to the left-hand side by itself, and I quite like it! I think the design and placement fit better with the Windows 11 UX. However, I'm not seeing any way to enable this feature on my older, upgraded machine. If I enable the Widgets option in the Taskbar settings, I just get the normal Widgets button sitting in between the Search and Teams/Chat buttons.
Both machines are running the same version, build, and experience pack of Windows 11, neither are on the Insider Preview. The new device is a Razer Blade 15, and as far as I can tell it didn't come with any third-party software installed (not even Razer Synapse — I had to download it manually). The weather widget on my laptop disappears and reappears when I toggle the Widgets option in Taskbar settings, and it reveals the Windows 11 Widgets panel when I hover over it, so as far as I can tell this is definitely a Windows 11 feature and not some sort of third-party app.
If anyone has any ideas for why it's not working on my desktop, I'd love to hear them, but I reached out to MS support and did a Quick Share with a CS agent (in addition to searching for solutions on my own), so I'm not super optimistic that this is a solvable problem. Mostly I just want to make it known that that I think this is a really cool feature and I'm bummed that Windows 11 doesn't seem to expose any settings to configure it.
Try run Windows Update and check for update and see if there is any pending updates? Try restart your PC and see if you are able to use it? You may open start and search for feedback and open the Feedback Hub app and report this issue.