Graph API supports the $filter URL parameter, but it requires an attribute to filter on. I do not see a "last changed" attribute that can be used for the specific API call you mentioned. There's a few timestamps, but those seem to be related to other activities happening. Perhaps one of those can be used, but I wouldn't be sure which one to be honest.
The only other option if this doesn't exist would be to custom build something. We do this in a few cases, where we leverage Azure Storage Tables to create a hash over the attributes we want to monitor for change, and use this in combination with a stored date to check if there were changes. Not ideal to be honest :(