KAPPA analysis

Copper Contributor

Is it possible do a KAPPA analysis in Excel? I didn't find it in functions. thanks


1 Reply


it is possible to perform a Kappa analysis in Excel, although it may require some manual setup and calculations. The Kappa statistic is commonly used to measure inter-rater agreement for categorical items, especially in fields like psychology, medicine, and linguistics.

Here are the general steps you can follow to conduct a Kappa analysis in Excel:

  1. Data Preparation: Organize your data in a contingency table format, where rows represent the categories or items being rated, and columns represent the two raters or sources of ratings. Each cell in the table contains the frequency of agreement between the two raters for a particular category.
  2. Calculation of Agreement and Disagreement: Calculate the observed agreement (O) and expected agreement by chance (E) for each category. The observed agreement is the sum of the diagonal cells (where both raters agree), and the expected agreement is the product of the marginal frequencies divided by the total number of ratings.
  3. Calculation of Kappa Statistic: Use the formula for Kappa to calculate the Kappa statistic. The formula is:


      K =-------



O is the observed agreement, E is the expected agreement, and T is the total number of ratings.

4. Interpretation: Interpret the Kappa statistic to assess the level of agreement between the raters. A Kappa value of 1 indicates perfect agreement, while a value of 0 indicates agreement equivalent to chance.

5. Optional: You may also want to calculate confidence intervals for the Kappa statistic to assess its precision.

While Excel does not have built-in functions specifically for Kappa analysis, you can use formulas and calculations to perform the necessary computations. Alternatively, you can create a custom Excel template or utilize add-ins or plugins that offer Kappa analysis functionality.


Here are a few options you can find in Internet about add-ins that offer Kappa analysis:

Real Statistics Resource Pack: The Real Statistics Resource Pack is a free add-in for Excel that provides a wide range of statistical analysis tools, including Kappa analysis. You can download it from the Real Statistics website.

XLSTAT: XLSTAT is a powerful statistical analysis software that offers an Excel add-in for advanced data analysis. It includes a variety of tools for inter-rater agreement analysis, including Kappa analysis. You can find more information and download options on the XLSTAT website.

Analyse-it: Analyse-it is a comprehensive statistical analysis add-in for Excel that offers a range of analysis tools, including Kappa analysis for inter-rater agreement. You can learn more and download a trial version from the Analyse-it website.


Before choosing an add-in, consider your specific needs, budget, and the features offered by each tool. It's also a good idea to try out any trial versions or demos to see if the add-in meets your requirements. The text and the steps were created with the help of AI.


My answers are voluntary and without guarantee!


Hope this will help you.

Was the answer useful? Mark as best response and Like it!

This will help all forum participants.