I have the same issue, triggered with the same update. Some other system apps are reporting also as not connectable, like Tips and Store, while network settings say that I am connected to the Internet. Funny thing with feedback hub: it also reports that it cannot connect, but it actually sent my report (I got an email notification about it)! I have played with Proxy settings, but it changed nothing. Other browsers or tools (i.e. telnet) connect to the Internet with no issues.
I am having the same problem since preview build 17734. The issue: UWP applications like Edge, Store, etc cannot "see" the internet. Yet desktop applications like Chrome or IE do see the internet just fine. Initially, I did a clean install and everything was working just fine. Once I joined this build to our AD domain it quit working. I'm wondering if there is a policy causing this. This preview edition is now running build 17763 and this problem persists.
Just last week I found the solution (at least for my corporate environment). Generally the issue in this case is that any Universal Windows Program (UWP) will not connect to the internet while standard desktop apps like Chrome, IE and other can connect. You can search the internet and find quite a bit of commentary on UWP software requires IPv6 protocol. In my world, IPv6 is turned off by policy once I join to our Active Directory domain. I re-enabled IPv6 by changing the following registry location: