|Application (7)||Network process||HTTP, SMTP, DNS|
|Presentation (6)||Data representation and encryption||JPG, GIF, SSL, ASCII|
|Session (5)||Interhost communication||NetBIOS|
|Transport (4)||End-to-End Connections||TCP, UDP (Ports)|
|Network (3)||Path determination and routing based on IP addresses||Routers|
|Data Link (2)||Forward frames based on MAC addresses||802.3 Ethernet, Switches|
|Physical (1)||Send data through physical signaling||Network cables, NIC cards|
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