(I've filed this feedback on Feedback Hub but received no reply how to resolve it. So asking here for ideas.)
My Insider Preview machine's build is 18272. To get new builds, I have to check for updates from Microsoft Update rather than the organization's WSUS. However, when I click on the link to check updates, the Settings app quits.
I've tried running the Windows Update Troubleshooter, which found nothing. I've also stopped relevant services and renamed all folders in the Windows\SoftwareDistribution folder. New ones were created, but the issue isn't resolved.