SQL Server's Column Store feature is designed to accommodate large amounts of data and associated compression capabilities. Microsoft studied numerous data layouts associated with column store and the CPU instructions required to process that data. Various algorithms have been optimized throughout the column store code base.
A specific, SQL Server 2016 enhancement is the use of vector based hardware capabilities. When compressing, building dictionaries and processing data a vectored design is leveraged. SQL Server 2016 detects the level of CPU support for the following extensions and when supported SQL Server 2016 takes full advantage of the hardware scalability and performance capabilities.
SQL Server uses the order of the following list to select the hardware extension.