The approach depends on the file types used and whether it is one directional or bi-directional.
Some possible approaches:
1. The simplest is to use SharePoint's property promotion/demotion mechanism to sync metadata between Office files (bi-directional) and SharePoint columns. For example, title. You do not have control over the column names in SharePoint. This will not work for file formats such as pdf, msg, jpg, etc...
2. Another approach is to use quick parts. Again only suitable for selected file formats.
3. Use tools that allow mapping of document properties (e.g. company in Word file, key word from PDF, subject from email, GPS location from jpg file, ...) to specific SharePoint columns. You have control over the SharePoint column names but there is only a one way sync only. example:
4. Use Power Automate to extract metadata from documents.