Yes, if the section is labeled with text that uses a Heading style, you can hover over the text (when the page is not in edit mode) to grab the URL for that section of the page. The URL provides a direct link to the section from the quick links or text web parts. It cannot be used in navigation links, however. I often use this approach to build a “ table of contents” on long pages.
Another technique you can use that is now fully rolled out is collapsible sections. This allows you to show section headings collapsed so that readers can quickly scan and expand the section with the information they are looking for. It relies on very clear section naming, of course.