I have added the News webpart in my team site in SharePoint Online modern view where i am not able to perform the Filter by Page property in web part property. But it is only showing the option for "Title" not other column.
If you are selecting "Page Properties" from the filter options then the only option by default is the Page Title. More options appear here if you create custom columns such as "Department" which can then be filtered on to show different news.
The other default columns that are available are not under Page Properties they are in the same list which you will have seen as below:-