My Windows 10 Home installation kept failing to update itself for months. I spent hours looking at the update screen and being unable to do anything - I checked how to fix it and why it fails but I never managed to fix it.
I delayed the updates for as long as possible and yesterday I learnt that uninstalling microsoft edge prevents the update. I deleted the Program & Files x86/Microsoft/Edge,Core,Update folders and on the next reboot the update succeeded.
Please allow users to update their OS if they do not have microsoft edge installed.