This is what you missed (I missed it too when I first took a look). The row number on the Bar Styles does NOT set the row height, rather it determines where that particular bar style will appear in the Gantt display. For example, take a look at this simple plan. I set the progress bar to occupy the 2nd bar row. All other bars are still at the default 1st row so for task b, the normal Gantt bar is on row 1 but the progress bar is on row 2. You can chose any bar to appear on any one of 4 Gantt rows.
If you want to change the VIEW row height, the best way to do that is by grabbing the horizontal row separator and dragging it to the desired row height as I did in this display for the Project Summary Row.