I have a user who changed their M365 Password which (of course) caused the OneDrive Desktop App to stop syncing. Outlook and Teams both prompted him to update his password which he was able to do. There doesn't appear to be any way to configure OneDrive with the new password. He quit and relaunched OneDrive and he restarted his computer. Neither of these methods prompted him to enter his new password.
So, it seems that the only way to change your password is to Unlink from Computer. Obviously having to go back to SPO and re-syncing is a gigantic concern for users who are syncing hundreds of gigabytes across multiple libraries and folders in SharePoint. They're essentially starting all over just because they reset their password - this can take days of sync time.