"For the full Teams experience, every user should be enabled for Exchange Online, SharePoint Online, and Office 365 Group creation." I am using this for my users and can confirm all interactions are in perfect way between Exchange and Teams.
If you are CU3 and using AD Sync, you should be able to use the meeting functionality per docs, but I've heard it's not exactly ideal situation, but "Technically" it should work for basic meeting functionality.
@Newlife I can say from our experience that having Exchange 2016 only, without hybrid set up in any way, does NOT give you meeting functionality via Teams. You can do meetings via Outlook, and use regular video and 'meet me' type meetings, but you won't see the 'meeting' or 'calendar' tab in Teams.