When I try to share content (eg. a web page) to Teams I am able to select the app i’m the list but then a pop up message appears saying (sorry it is not the literal message, it is translated) that in order to proceed some configurations need to be updated and I have to open Teams to do that but Teams is a fresh installation and I am not able to see any configuration related with it that can be changed
I think you just need to open Teams and let it update, when they push server updates or app updates it'll say that sometimes to sync it up or enable new features etc. Once it does it then go back and you shoudl be able to then share properly.
Yeah mines working, but I can reproduce it on a tenant that has the newer server side update that allows customization of the tabs. Once I switch from my guest tenant that had that in the app to my main tenant it started to work. It's either because you left Teams open connected as a guest to a guest tenant causing it, or it's the updated server side feature being enabled causing it.