Ran into a pickle with trying to disable Developer options on Android for the Personally owned devices aka BYOD, but at least from Configuration policies I did not find this option - there was a way to disable USB debugging which is not quite it.
There seems to be an option under OEMConfig (with Samsung Service Plugin) but we currently do not have a Premium license even though the Debug mode seems to not require it. Right now the policy returns an error even though I have the app and policy in place seemingly as its supposed to be. Step 1: Microsoft Intune - Add to UEM (samsungknox.com)
I have also taken a look at Fully managed configuration options but there does not seem to be any reference to Developer options but rather indications to Debug mode which I would guess is the same thing? Android Enterprise device settings in Microsoft Intune | Microsoft Docs But if at all possible I would rather resolve this option within the BYOD model.