Windows and Outlook versions in use
Microsoft Outlook 2016 MSO (16.0.4639.100) 32 bitMicrosoft Windows 10 EnterpriseWinver Version 1803 (OS BUILD 171134.112)Msinfo32 Version 10.0.17134 Build 17134
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I was able fix Issue actually there two issues,
1. Oauth was required to be enabled on exchange online at the tenant level (for exchange only) no other application is affected by as the command to do it is an exchange specific commandlet
2. Then there was an additional authentication prompt experienced by the users whose mailbox was migrated to office 365 (EXO) for that there is a registry key
Info about the AllowAdalForNonLyncIndependentOfLync setting in Skype for Business, Lync 2013, and Exchange Onlinehttps://support.microsoft.com/en-in/help/3082803/info-about-the-allowadalfornonlyncindependentoflync...
I am having the same issue, but nothing has fixed. As, soon as I start Office 365\Outlook on my Windows 10 desktop, I get the following Windows Security prompt as shown on screen.
I installed this on Windows 10 Desktop which is running on Citrix VDI
Did you tried Support and Recovery Assistant from MS to fix the issue. If not try that you may download it from the below link...