I am having trouble wrapping my head around the difference between a Send Connector and a Receive Connector in my Exchange 2010 hybrid server. Is there a definitive resource online that someone could point me to?
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One handles inbound mail flow, the other one outbound. The ones created when sing Hybrid make sure that all traffic between on-premises and Exchange Online is encrypted.
You can refer to the TechNet documentation for more details: https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/jj657461(v=exchg.160).aspx
The thing I can't really wrap my head around is why this statement in my internal KB:
In order to permit applications to send emails you must set permissions on an exchange receive connector.
I'm assuming that's for the scenario where you want to use this application to sent/relay messages via Exchange. Thus, it needs to be allowed on the receive connector first.
I think I understand. So, the Receive Connector - when acting as an SMTP Relay - must receive the message from a separate device before it can relay (send) it on to the Internet. Right?
There can be other uses too, but that's kinda the definition, yes.