So, have you read the Microsoft documentation, e.g., Create a Map chart in Excel? You will note that this mapping creates only choropleth (colored-region) maps. And as described in the Limitations section, the level of geographic detail may not be what you want.
Using the capabilities of Bing Maps might be a better fit. The interaction of Excel with it is described, for instance, in the Microsoft documentation Get started with 3D Maps (it includes a downloadable workbook of Chicago narcotics arrests for 2011; something to experiment with), and this Simon Sez IT article (includes a video).
Be aware that what Microsoft calls a table is not (just) what most people would call a table.
Of course, other mapping products are available, such as (discontinued) Microsoft MapPoint and alternatives to it, and mapping websites such as Google Maps and Datawrapper.