When the browser is launched from Run As Administrator or Run As Another User the identity of the launching user to be used in authentications with AD/ADFS is not honored.
In fact no matter what credentials I use to 'Run As' it ignores that user and always uses the same workstation user to pass for authentication.
This worked perfectly well under IE ironically. Its been a showstopper from using Chrome for many tasks for years, and now you have inherited their issues,
I had reverted to using in-private sessions in the dev branch which is a a pain since it requires multiple prompts to authenticate with ADFS. Now that's even harder since the 'Tasks' from the right click on the task bar have gone missing in GA so InPrivate requires a bunch of hoops.