Honestly with all these A/B testings going on and the sync issues people having randomly every now and then, I don't think it's helpful to say you don't have a problem. not being rude or anything, just telling the fact. cause everybody's machine is different now (also notice the little icon next to the history sync that is there for me but you don't got it which is weird). if it was Google Chrome Canary, then sure we all would have access to the same features and if a problem was universal then we all would be experiencing it. obviously I haven't done anything to disable those sync features, Edge just likes to self destruct. those sync settings you see turned on might as well be placebo, meaning if you uninstall and reinstall your Edge, they might stay off. I also should mention that I'm on Windows 10 insider fast ring build 18990 VB. I barely think it's related to the Windows. the past 2 builds have been dedicated to bug fixed only, no new features introduced. and currently there is the bug bash program running, everybody finding and reporting the bugs they find.
anyway this is just annoying dealing with these bugs that only some people experience and others don't. I don't know how Devs expect us to help each other in the forum if each of us have a "different" version of Edge insider on our computers.
As soon as my Edge has been updated to the latest version Version 79.0.285.0 (Official build) canary (64-bit) i have exactly the same bug as you. Same picture with sync settings (grayed out). But today (passed almost 12 hrs) i noticed that it looks like @Dennis5mile screenshot. Probably need some time in order servers can sync that info. Same like with picture (in bug bash stated that for some services it could take up to 24 hrs in order to sync some settings)