Did you try with another Edge channel, eg Dev or Canary? Let's say you're using stable Edge, download either Dev or Canary version from https://www.microsoftedgeinsider.com/download/ install and see if it opens. Then close all instances of Edge using the task manager and copy your original Edge user data to the new Edge version.
C:\Users\<UserName>\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Edge Dev\User Data\<ProfileName>
C:\Users\<UserName>\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Edge SxS\User Data\<ProfileName>
No guarantee, but I had to do it once and it worked for me that way. At least this should do as a temporary workaround until you solved the original problem and give you access to the things you've set up in Edge.