I have an issue where I cannot open Microsoft edge even though it pops up in my task manager for about 3 seconds. I have tried everything from downloading it a second time as instructed when I looked up the issue, to manually going through the files on my computer to find an alternate way to open the application. I need to use the browser to access information and other applications that I have set up using edge. It was a stupid decision to make it permanently installed on my device and I'm pretty disappointed in the decision making of the people who put this system in place.
Did you try with another Edge channel, eg Dev or Canary? Let's say you're using stable Edge, download either Dev or Canary version from https://www.microsoftedgeinsider.com/download/ install and see if it opens. Then close all instances of Edge using the task manager and copy your original Edge user data to the new Edge version.
No guarantee, but I had to do it once and it worked for me that way. At least this should do as a temporary workaround until you solved the original problem and give you access to the things you've set up in Edge.