On this document you can find the frequency of Azure Update Management collection of data:
As you can see for Windows computers within 15 mins after the update you should see the compliance changed. For Linux machines that interval is 30 mins to 6 hours.
For Windows there is not way of changing that frequency. For Linux I think there is a way to change the frequency by modifying some of the config files but I would strongly advise you against that.
In case you are seeing results outside of these time frames I would suggest to try troubleshoot the Log Analytics agent as that would be the most probable culprit for the issue. For Windows agent I think clearing its cache and restarting it should kick in another scan.