I have 8 servers all running Server 2016 STandard. They all seem to be running fine and do Windows Updates with no issues, except on one of my servers that keeps failing on Windows Update KB4512517 2019-08 Cumulative Update for Windows Server 2016 for x64-based Systems. All my other servers ran this Update with no issues. This particular server has had no issues with any other WIndows Updates. Any thoughts? Thank you.
Run the Troubleshooter a few times to see if it can work through the DB issue. If not, here are some other thoughts, but be aware, they can have some affect on your system/applications, etc. So use sparingly. Also, backup your system before anything in case issues might arise.
The following has some methods to attempt to fix the issue. I know it is Windows 10, but should be similar steps for Windows 2016.