@WieserG I have the same problem if I use a USB video camera during the call. After 1 minute to 15 minutes all of my USB ports stop working - meaning I have no mouse or keyboard control of the computer. This happens with Teams app and Teams through the browser. It also happens with two different video cameras - so it's not unique to the video camera.
@WieserG I've been having the same issue. My USB devices will lock up or flat out disconnect randomly when in a Teams voice meeting. They are connected through a Dell TB16 hub. It seems to only have started recently (in the last two or three weeks)
@WieserG I was able to resolve my problem by removing all extra unconnected USB cables from my computer and by changing all peripherals (e.g. mouse, keyboard, camera, headset, etc.) to USB 2.0 ports and avoiding the 3.0 ports. I have had several days being able to join teams meetings with no problems. Before, I could join a meeting and within seconds or minutes all of my USB ports would become inoperable. And, it didn't matter whether I was using video or not.
Some other things I tried that did not resolve the issue were 1) changing my BIOS version and 2) turning off all USB sleep power settings (e.g. unchecking "Allow the computer to turn off this device to save power" under Power Management for USB device in Device Manager). These actions seemed to have no affect on my problem, but they are still in place as part of my computer's current working configuration.